By Daniela Giannetti, Bernard Grofman
In the early Nineties, significant electoral reforms came about in either Italy and Japan; each one changed a sort of “proportional illustration” (in which electorate forged a poll for a celebration checklist) with a “mixed member” procedure (in which citizens solid ballots for person applicants and social gathering lists). The reforms have been enacted by means of political elites within the context of divisions in the dominant celebration, altering styles of occasion aid, and social gathering splits, in efforts to keep strength whereas responding to fees of corruption, clientelism, and absence of responsibility. The reports of either nations offer a laboratory within which to enquire the results and implications of the reforms, and, extra widely to research voter habit within the context of institutional switch. The advent offers an summary of post-WWII politics and electoral reform in Italy and Japan. In all of the next 4 chapters, experts in Italian and eastern electoral politics are teamed as much as evaluation info either prior to and after the reforms. inside of this comparative framework, the authors discover such issues as adjustments in get together pageant, candidate choice mechanisms, and intra-party politics. The concluding bankruptcy considers the longer-term consequences—both expected and unanticipated—of the reforms. regardless of superficially comparable stipulations, the consequences within the nations have been dramatically assorted: in Japan, the hot procedure has taken carry, with minor differences, whereas in Italy, there has been a reversion to a proportional illustration process. because the essays during this quantity reveal, to appreciate why related reforms had such diversified results within the nations we needs to study how electoral structures are embedded in broader institutional and social preparations, and examine the complicated interaction of political geography, political background, and the rational calculations of political actors.
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Extra info for A Natural Experiment on Electoral Law Reform: Evaluating the Long Run Consequences of 1990s Electoral Reform in Italy and Japan
There also were a number of labor union and religious organization members who supported small- to middle-size parties (Flanagan et al. 1991). A relatively large proportion of Japanese voters have been traditionally conservative, and these are the people who have more or less endorsed the long governance of the LDP. As discussed in the previous section, however, the dominance of the LDP had already been waning when electoral reform was enacted. With the ending of the Cold War the JSP (which later became the SDP) lost popular support.
The coalition hinged on mutual benefits gained from the alliance. The electoral coordination of the coalition depended on their supporters’ willingness to trade their votes between the two parties across the systems. Such coordination is often hard to accomplish, and “neither party can expect much more from the other” (Reed and Kay 2009). The absence of a direct constraint from the electoral system distinguishes the Japanese case from the Italian one. This is consistent with the ups and downs of the partisan power balance between the LDP and DPJ between the 2005 and 2009 general elections.
2) are almost twice as high as that observed in Japan from 1996 to 2005 (Fig. 6). 5 Concentration index of votes and seats for two major parties (1986–2009) 2009 32 A. Di Virgilio and J. 6 ENEP (effective number of electoral parties) and ENPP (effective number of parliamentary parties) for individual parties (1986–2009) When there is low fragmentation of parties, larger parties do not have incentives to coordinate the candidacies in SMDs before elections. The lower level of fragmentation has therefore decreased the incentives for forming PECs.
A Natural Experiment on Electoral Law Reform: Evaluating the Long Run Consequences of 1990s Electoral Reform in Italy and Japan by Daniela Giannetti, Bernard Grofman