By Günther A. Wagner
The Quaternary, which spans nearly the final 2 million years, is characterised through dramatic environmental alterations, generally called the "ice age". in this interval, guy along with his manifold cultures developed. makes an attempt at relationship those occasions as safely as attainable have made nice development. The wide spectrum of actual and chemical courting tools, now to be had for relationship human artifacts and Quaternary rocks, is turning into more and more tricky to understand. during this publication many of the chronometric options are comprehensively and intelligibly handled. by way of a number of case reviews, taken from archaeology and Quaternary geology, the capability and obstacle of those suggestions are validated. The ebook is meant quite often for scientists and scholars of those fields, however the layman can also locate its lucrative.
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Additional info for Age Determination of Young Rocks and Artifacts. Physical and Chemical Clocks in Quaternary Geology and Archaeology
Flint belongs to the most durable archaeological materials. A weathering rind, the patina, that macroscopically differs from the fresh interior, forms on the flint surface during burial. Attempts have been made to exploit the thickness of weathering rinds for dating artifact surfaces. This approach proved to be very problematic because of the 40 2 Materials Fig. 8. Paleolithic flint artifact from Berigoule in Vaucluse, France, showing craquelation. This crack pattern is indicative of heating manifold soil-chemical influences on the weathering process (RottHinder 1989).
Beside the 14C method (Sect. 4), which is applicable to synsedimentary organic components « 40 ka), luminescence dating (Sects. 2) is suitable for alluvial sediments (100 a-wo ka), if the minerals have been exposed sufficiently intensively or long to daylight during their transportation or deposition. It has to be assumed that the light conditions are strongly facies-dependent and alluvial sediments are variably well suited for luminescence dating. Generally, the more light -sensitive OSL signal is preferable to the TL signal for dating.
To what 2 Materials extent this method is suitable in order to determine the time since when the surfaces of silices were exposed to weathering (Sect. 2) remains questionable. 5 Diffusion Fronts During weathering, chemical components move through natural and artificial rock surfaces by diffusion, resulting in microscopically thin diffusion fronts. The front separates the fresh unchanged material from the chemically altered rind. The thickness of the diffusion rind grows with the exposure time of the surface, which allows dating.
Age Determination of Young Rocks and Artifacts. Physical and Chemical Clocks in Quaternary Geology and Archaeology by Günther A. Wagner