By Georg H. Von Wright

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**Extra resources for An Essay In Modal Logic**

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As an undefined deontic modality we introduce the concept of There is a more elaborate account of this topic in my article Deontic Logic in Mind 60, 1951. The concept of an act-individual presents some complications. The description of the individual involves the mention both of an agent by which and of an occasion on which the act is performed. The occasion, moreover, need not be spatio-temporally continuous. These complications, however. need not concern us here. DEONTIC MODALITIES 37 permission.

27), and the logical or descriptive nature of the originally given property, do not affect the extensions of the epistemically modalized versions of the original property in the same peculiar way as they affect the extensions of its alethically modalized versions. (Cf. above p. ) This fact makes it possible to quantify epistemically modalized properties with effects which are not obtainable by means of quantification without modalization. ) the proposition that something is known to have the property called A does not depend for its truth-value on the formal or material nature of the property called A , nor is it (generally) entailed by the proposition that something has the property called A .

This fact constitutes a solution of the decision problem of the System E V . Every EV-sentence has what we propose to call an absolutely perfect disjunctive normal form. This we obtain, if we replace the E V-sentence by a molecular complex of its E V-constituents and transform this molecular complex into the perfect disjunctive normal form. If the constituent which expresses an always false proposition occurs in a member of the disjunction, we omit this member, and if its negation-sentence occurs we omit the negationsentence.

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