Read e-book online An Invitation to Formal Reasoning: The Logic of Terms PDF

By Frederic Sommers, George Englebretsen

ISBN-10: 0754613666

ISBN-13: 9780754613664

This paintings introduces the topic of formal common sense when it comes to a approach that's "like syllogistic logic". Its method, like outdated, conventional syllogistic, is a "term logic". The authors' model of good judgment ("term-function logic", TFL) stocks with Aristotle's syllogistic the perception that the logical different types of statements which are considering inferences as premises or conclusions will be construed because the results of connecting pairs of phrases via a logical copula (functor). This perception contrasts markedly with that which informs trendy common formal common sense ("modern predicate logic", MPL). The e-book is meant as a device for the advent of TFL to the start pupil of good judgment. additionally it is a bankruptcy introducing common MPL. There are numerous workout sections and a precis of the most ideas, legislation and ideas of TFL. For the philosophically orientated there are discussions of significant matters on the intersections of semantics, metaphysics, epistemology and good judgment.

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6. There is no such person as the present King of France. (hint use 'K*' for 'present King of France' and treat the statement as 'The K* does not exist' or as 'Nothing is K*'. · 7. Russell was a genius. 8. Some actors are not rich. 9. Some who are rich are not actors. 10. Every fool is unwise. ****************************************************************** 3. Entailments We noted earlier that the truth of any statement claiming THE EXISTENCE OF SOMETHING THAT IS BOTH X AND Y entails the truth of its converse.

The circle represents a set of things which, if it is occupied, has only one thing in it, Bigfoot. The cross indicates that the set of things that are Bigfoot is not empty, thus the diagram represents the claim that some thing is Bigfoot, that Bigfoot exists. The corresponding negative proposition expressed by 'Bigfoot does not exist' would then be represented thus: Figure 8 The shading indicates that nothing is Bigfoot. From a logical point of view, a singular statement, 'N* is P' has the form 'some X* is Y' since it claims existence.

9. Some who are rich are not actors. 10. Every fool is unwise. ****************************************************************** 3. Entailments We noted earlier that the truth of any statement claiming THE EXISTENCE OF SOMETHING THAT IS BOTH X AND Y entails the truth of its converse. In other words if the proposition expressed by 'some X is Y' is true, then the proposition expressed by 'some Y is X' must also be true. And again, to say that one statement entails another is a convenient way of saying that the proposition expressed by the first statement entails the proposition expressed by the second.

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An Invitation to Formal Reasoning: The Logic of Terms by Frederic Sommers, George Englebretsen


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